Angola



Official Country Name
Angola

Angola Overview
Angola is slowly rebuilding its country after the end of a 27-year civil war in 2002. Fighting between the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), led by Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS, and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), led by Jonas SAVIMBI, followed independence from Portugal in 1975. Peace seemed imminent in 1992 when Angola held national elections, but UNITA renewed fighting after being beaten by the MPLA at the polls. Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost - and 4 million people displaced - in the quarter century of fighting. SAVIMBI's death in 2002 ended UNITA's insurgency and strengthened the MPLA's hold on power. DOS SANTOS has pledged to hold legislative elections in 2007, but 2008 may be more realistic.

Angola Economy
Angola's high growth rate is driven by its oil sector, with record oil prices and rising petroleum production. Oil production and its supporting activities contribute about half of GDP and 90% of exports. Increased oil production supported 12% growth in 2004, 19% growth in 2005, and nearly 17% growth in 2006. A postwar reconstruction boom and resettlement of displaced persons has led to high rates of growth in construction and agriculture as well. Much of the country's infrastructure is still damaged or undeveloped from the 27-year-long civil war. Remnants of the conflict such as widespread land mines still mar the countryside even though an apparently durable peace was established after the death of rebel leader Jonas SAVIMBI in February 2002. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for half of the population, but half of the country's food must still be imported. In 2005, the government started using a $2 billion line of credit from China to rebuild Angola's public infrastructure, and several large-scale projects were completed in 2006. The central bank in 2003 implemented an exchange rate stabilization program using foreign exchange reserves to buy kwanzas out of circulation, a policy that was more sustainable in 2005 because of strong oil export earnings, and has significantly reduced inflation. Consumer inflation declined from 325% in 2000 to about 13% in 2006, but the stabilization policy places pressure on international net liquidity. To fully take advantage of its rich national resources - gold, diamonds, extensive forests, Atlantic fisheries, and large oil deposits - Angola will need to continue reforming government policies and to reduce corruption. The government has made little progress on reforms recommended by the IMF such as promoting greater transparency in government spending and continues to be without a formal monitoring agreement with the institution. Corruption, especially in the extractive sectors, is a major challenge facing Angola.

Angola Location
Angola is located in Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo

Region
Angola is located in Africa

Angola Population
Angola has population of 12,127,071 (July 2006 est.)

Angola Climate
Angola has semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)

Angola Terrain
narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau

Angola Natural Resources
petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium

Ethnic Groups in Angola
Angola has the following ethnic groups - Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European and native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%

Angola Religions
indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% (1998 est.)

Angola Languages
Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages

Angola Capital
Angola capital is Luanda

Angola Currency
Angola currency is kwanza

Map of Angola